Rēplenish provides only those minor and trace elements found by oceanographers to exhibit non-conservative behavior in seawater (meaning that they are depleted by biological and chemical reactions taking place within the photic zone) and that are safe for human handling. Elements are present in natural seawater ratios (i.e. the ratios in which they are present in seawater). Since they are not depleted by biological nor chemical interactions, no minor or trace elements that are not expressly needed by aquatic organisms are present in this product; this includes unnecessary elements such as lithium, rubidium, and molybdenum.
Of the detectable elements in seawater, 11 are minor elements and 52 are trace elements. Between the two groups, at least 13 elements appear to be expressly-required for the growth of primary producers such as algae, and an additional 18 are either incorporated into living tissue/skeletal material or undergo chemical interactions that cause their depletion in surface waters. These elements are important to a number of enzymatic and vitamin-synthesis reactions for plants and animals alike; additionally, they influence pigmentation, and therefore coloration, of various organisms. Iron is utilized in the production of chloroplasts; it is very important to photosynthetic organisms such as phytoplankton, micro- and macroalgae, coralline algae, and zooxanthellae. Although iodine is a minor element, it is taken up by algae and aquatic plants more rapidly than other minor elements, and is not included in this product, but rather in separate supplements.
All Brightwell Aquatics liquid water care supplements are made with purified water and high purity materials. We develop formulae for aquaria based on empirical data, using observation and measurement rather than theory.